Because of the unique biodiversity and spectacular natural formations of Pirin, the Government of Bulgaria has established over 40,000 ha of mountain protected area – Pirin National Park. It is a piece of nature that is a priceless Bulgarian and world heritage and is included in UNESCO’s “Man and the Biosphere” program.
The landscape of the Pirin Mountains is diverse and includes a notable alpine area, dotted with many lakes, forested mountain landscapes that define the unique fauna richness in the mountain.
National Park Pirin established in 2091 species and subspecies of invertebrates (spiders, millipedes, insects, snails, etc.).. This figure includes 294 rare species, 216 endemics, 176 and 15 relict species present in the world and European lists of endangered species.
Pirin is one of the most original flora in relation to our mountains. It is characterized by exceptional plant diversity and high proportion of endemic component. Reason for this are too varied conditions caused by a combination of southern latitude and high altitude. Moreover, in the mountains and especially in the Pirin National Park, the conditions of relief are too diverse and favor the existence of a large number of ecological niches that serve as habitat for various plant species. Particularly important role in the distribution of plant species play reaction bedrock. Here occur as siliceous and calcareous sites. Lakes and streams also diversified conditions, creating wetland habitats for hygrophytes species.
The composition of forests in the territory of Pirin National Park includes 16 tree species, some of them are endemic species, others are of particular conservation significance, or represent some of the largest inventories of tree species in Europe and in Bulgaria. The total area of the Pirin National Park is 40,356 ha and the forested area is 23,110 ha. Within the large area there is dwarf pine, white fir, white pine, spruce, fir, beech, and black pine. The average age of forests in Pirin National Park is 85 years, the largest proportion of forests are older than 140 years.